Noni Scientific Studies & Cancer
|As a researcher in Hawaii, Dr. Ralph Heinicke became aware of the marvelous benefits of the Noni fruit and set out to find the pharmacologically active ingredient of the Noni. Dr. Heinicke had spent over 45 years studying the effects of an alkaloid he discovered and named xeronine. Xeronine is a relatively small alkaloid which is physiologically very active and important for the proper functioning of all cells in the body. In his research, Dr. Heinicke discovered that the Noni juice contains appreciable amounts of the precursor of xeronine that he named "proxeronine". "Proxeronine" releases pure xeronine in the intestines when it comes in contact with a particular enzyme also found in the Noni Juice. |
Dr. Heinicke's theory is that, when released, xeronine actually works at the molecular level to repair damaged cells. Dr. Heinicke states that the primary function of xeronine is to regulate the rigidity and shape of specific proteins. Since these proteins have different functions within the cells, this explains how the administration of Noni Juice causes an unbelievably wide range of physiological responses. "Some of the problems which drinking Noni Juice might favorably affect are: high blood pressure, menstrual cramps, arthritis, gastric ulcers, sprains, injuries, mental depression, senility, poor digestion, atherosclerosis, blood vessel problems, drug addiction, relief of pain, and many others. Although this list looks like a page torn out of a traveling medicine man's manual, it is probably conservative." - Dr. Heinicke
When Ralph M. Heinicke received his doctorate in biochemistry from the University of Minnesota, he wanted to escape from those cold Minnesota winters and so he took a job with Dole Pineapple Company in Hawaii. His first assignment was to develop a method to extract the enzyme that caused pineapple to prevent gelatin deserts from setting up. He found it was an enzyme called bromelain and in due time he and his coworkers found a way to extract it. Soon the Dole Company found that every day they had over a thousand pounds of this crude bromelain enzyme extract left over as a waste product. At the time it had no commercial value, and so the company president asked Dr. Heinicke to see if he could find some use for this material. Eventually he found it was a proteolytic enzyme that had some medical applications. He worked with Smith-Kline and the Rohr pharmaceutical companies to expand its medical use.
In order to get FDA approval for this enzyme he had to refine the crude bromelain extract down to an extremely pure protease enzyme. Much to his and the drug companies amazement, the more pure the enzyme became, the less beneficial it was in many of its applications. Eventually, in its purest state, it had only 5% of its original potency for many of its uses. Dr. Heinicke was then asked to find what it was they were removing that had given the crude bromelain extract all of its power. Meanwhile the giant Japanese drug company Toshiba had also launched a 3 year, 3 million dollar program to find the same answer. At the end of that time they had used up all their money and not found the answer. Not one to give up easily, Dr. Heinicke continued his research and eventually found to his great surprise that the active ingredient was not a protein, carbohydrate or fat, but a substance known as an alkaloid.
Alkaloids are one of the most important classes of phytochemicals known, and are a major source from which many modern medicines are drawn from Nature. By isolating this alkaloid into a pure state, he was able to identify is exact chemical structure. Because it could be reduced to a dry crystalline structure he decided to use the latin prefix "Xero" meaning "dry" as the first part of its name. Since it was also an alkaline compound he tacked on the suffix "ine" indicating its alkaline nature. When the prefix and suffix are combined it gives us the word "Xeronine" which means, "a dry alkaline compound". Which is the descriptive name he chose for the compound he discovered.
Eventually he found that Xeronine was a very important biochemical in the human body and essential for good health. So essential that the human body has a limited ability to manufacture it from the raw material found in certain fruits. Like many other biochemicals produced in the body, he found that positive thoughts and emotions, along with exposure to art, music, nature and spiritual experiences increased its production. While negative thoughts, emotions and stressful experiences suppressed it's production. He also learned that as the body's level of Xeronine declined with age, stress and a poor diet, the level of health and recovery declined right along with it.
PROVING THE ESSENTIAL NATURE OF XERONINE
Being a scientist, Dr. Heinicke knew that he would have to find a way to prove the essential nature of this amazing alkaloid before he or anyone else could really believe this was essential to good health. During the course of his research through the scientific literature for compounds similar to Xeronine, he located one that had a chemical structure that was extremely close.
This chemical cousin is called Tetrodotoxin and is the most potent neurotoxic poison known to man. It is a potent alkaloid found in the Puffer Fish. When Dr. Heinicke discovered this fact he realized that here was a way to determine for sure whether the Xeronine he had isolated from the pineapple was essential to human health or not. You see, the only reason the body takes up certain toxic chemical substances is because they chemically mimic one the body must normally have. For example, morphine is addictive to the brain only because it chemically mimics natural chemicals of the brain called endorphins and are taken up by the same receptors in the brain. Realizing this Dr. Heinicke reasoned that Tetrodotoxin must mimic Xeronine. If this were true, Dr. Heinicke realized that the presence of Xeronine in the tissues would block the uptake of the poisonous Tetrodotoxin and prevent its lethal effect.
AN IMPORTANT GROUNDBREAKING EXPERIMENT!
In a groundbreaking experiment Dr. Heinicke proved the Tetrodotoxin is accepted by the body only when Xeronine was missing. He did this by taking 30 laboratory mice and dividing them into 3 groups of 10 each. He gave an injection of the Tetrodotoxin to one group and they all immediately died. Next he gave an injection of an equivalent amount of Xeronine to the second group and of course they all lived. Finally he mixed together the amounts of Tetrodotoxin and Xeronine he had used with the other 2 groups of mice and injected the third group of mice. Not only did all 10 of these mice live, but unlike mice would normally do who have received an intestinal injection, they did not curl up in the wood shavings to recover when placed back in their cages. Instead these mice were alert, energetic, curious and active. Yet these mice had just received a lethal dose of the most powerful neurotoxin known to man. This experiment had proven that Xeronine is an essential biochemical of good health, and a natural constituent of the body. Because of this, Xeronine had been preferentially taken up by the nerve tissue, totally blocking out the highly poisonous Tetrodotoxin, and provided not only protection, but exceptionally good health and vigor as well.
Anti Cancer Activity of Morinda citrifolia on Intraperitoneally Implanted Lewis Lung Carcinoma in Syngenic Mice
A. Hirazumi, E. Furusawa, S.C. Chou & Y. Hokama Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc. 37: 145-146 (1994)
This is a very significant study by a team of researchers from the University of Hawaii led by Annie Hirazumi. Ms. Hirazumi became interested in the study of the Noni fruit because of earlier experiences with its amazing qualities. Her father helped a good friend with the juice of the Noni, and later, Annie administered the pure Noni juice to a pet dog who was dying. The dog recovered miraculously, and Annie set out to find out more about this incredible fruit. The study by Ms. Hirazumi and her colleagues was conducted on live laboratory mice (specifically C57BL/6 mice) specifically identified as very receptive to injected Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells. The mice were injected with active Lewis Lung Carcinoma cells (LLC). Untreated, the mice died from 9-12 days after injection from the tumor growth. A portion of the injected mice were treated with Noni juice in five separate daily treatments. The Noni juice was shown to significantly increase the life span of the treated mice (from 105% 123%) with 9 of the 22 mice surviving for more than 50 days. The experiment was repeated on a different lot of mice with similar results. The Research Team concluded that the Noni juice: seems to act indirectly by enhancing host immune system involving macrophages and/or lymphocytes.
Induction of Normal Phenotypes in RAS transformed cells by Damnacanthal from Morinda citrifolia.
In this study, a team of Japanese researchers studied the effect of over 500 extracts from tropical plants on the K-ras-NRK cell (a pre cursor to certain types of cancer). The compound, damnacanthal, found in the Morinda citrifolia (Noni), was found to be an inhibitor of Ras function. The research: Ras cells were seeded into 96 plates and incubated at 33 degrees centigrade for 24 hours. The Noni plant extract was added and the cell morphology was examined every day for five days.
The Ras function was inhibited by the injected plant extract. This same compound has been found to inhibit the Epstein-Barr virus early-antigen activation. The extract from the Morinda citrifolia was found to be most effective in inhibiting Ras function among the 500 tested extracts.
Anti Cancer Activity
Analgesic and Behavioral Effects of Morinda Citrifolia C. Younos, A. Rolland, J. Fleurentin, M. Lanhers, R. Misslin, F. Mortier Planta Medica 56 (1990) 430-434
In this study, the team lead by French scientist Chafique Younos, tested the analgesic and sedative effects of extracts from the Morinda citrifolia plant. They were aware of the traditional use of the plant as a general analgesic, and set out to determine if those claims were valid. The extract was shown to be non-toxic and did "show a significant, dose-related, central analgesic activity in the treated mice." This study included various experiments on the treated mice to determine the analgesic effect, if any, from the plant extracts of the Morinda citrifolia (Noni). The conclusion of these researchers was that the extract did in fact demonstrate analgesic effects consistently in each experiment. The conclusion of this study included a simple statement from the authors: "These findings validate the traditional analgesic properties of this plant " The above represent only a sample of the research completed on the Morinda citrifolia plant. The results are conclusive in each case in showing the validity of the traditional use of the Noni.
Steven M. Hall M.D.
This is from Steven M. Hall, M.D. who on January 7, 1997 reported the following results: "A 75 y/o male with metastatic prostate cancer, most recent PSA of 55, I added ... Noni to his conventional treatment regimen and within 2 weeks, his PSA was 1.1."2 (emphasis added) There is simply nothing else I am aware of that could possibly reduce Prostatic Specific Antigen from 55 (indicating uncontrolled cancer) to a normal 1.1, and DO IT IN JUST 2 WEEKS.
PHYTOCHEMICALS REVERSE CANCER
The power of phytochemicals to promote good health and control cancer is so impressive that the University of Illinois has created a whole new department with 63 scientists and professors to specialize in phytochemical research! Let me share with you some of the scientific findings leading to this major change in research.
Senior Science Advisor to the U.S. Public Health Service, Dr. D.L. Davis states, "Phytochemicals can take tumors and defuse them. They can turn off the proliferative process of cancer." At Ohio State University's Cancer Prevention Laboratory, Dr. Mark Morse and colleagues found that phytochemicals in broccoli known as sulforaphane could reduce esophageal tumor incidence by as much as 40% and reduce the multiplication of such cancer cells by 90%. Dr. Paul Taladay working at John Hopkins Medical Institute has found that this same phytochemical protected animals from getting cancer even when exposed to cancer causing chemicals. According to Dr. Joseph Hotchkiss of Cornell University, University, the phytochemicals coumaric acid and chlorogenic acid are able to eliminate many cancer causing substances from the body. An epidemiologist at the University of Minnesota, Dr. John Potter, told Newsweek Magazine, "At almost every step along the pathway to cancer, phytochemicals slow up or reverse the process." Most of these phytochemicals studied so far are found in ordinary vegetables and culinary herbs. The problem is the amount in these foods is so low that only if you eat a lot of them for a long time will they give you protection. If you already have cancer, what you need is a plant that has these phytochemicals in large enough amounts to go right to work.
NONI IS A TREASURE CHEST OF PHYTOCHEMICALS
When plant scientists at the U.S. Department of Agriculture studied the amazing Noni plant they quickly found the secret to its amazing health building power. It is endowed with a greater number and variety of health giving phytochemicals than just about any plant known. Dr. James A. Duke is one of the world's most highly respected scientific authorities on herbs and their phytochemical content. In his authoritative CRC Handbook on Phytochemicals he has listed 23 different phytochemicals found in Noni as well as 5 vitamins and 3 minerals. Research on Noni continues at an ever increasing pace with more of its phytochemicals being uncovered all the time.
IT IS THE INCREDIBLE POWER OF THESE PHYTOCHEMICALS THAT ARE PRODUCING THE WONDERFUL HEALTH BUILDING RESULTS DOCTORS AND PATIENTS ARE NOW SEEING AS A RESULT OF USING THIS AMAZING FRUIT! AS SAFE TO USE AS ANY FRUIT ON THE MARKET
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration, as well as the Department of Agriculture maintain a list of plants that have no known harmful ingredients and which over the test of time with large numbers of people have proven themselves to be safe for human consumption by the general population. This is known as the GRAS list, and it stands for Generally Recognized As Safe. Based on the fact that after careful scientific analysis no harmful ingredients were found, and the Polynesian people have been using this health building herb without harm for thousands of years, NONI HAS BEEN OFFICIALLY DESIGNATED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE.
Even though Noni is extremely safe, I would always suggest that the introduction of a new herb into the diet be approached with caution by anyone known to have food sensitivities, allergies, or asthma. I would also caution a woman who is pregnant or nursing to consult her physician before using Noni or any other herb.
HOW NONI HELPS THE BODY FIGHT OFF CANCER
Researchers at the University of Hawaii School of Medicine introduced cells containing a strain of lung cancer known as Lewis Lung Carcinoma into a group of mice especially bred to be highly susceptible to this type of cancer. Within 9 to 12 days the mice which were given no Noni were all dead as a result of the growth of the tumor. However, another group of these same mice were given an extract of the Noni fruit on five different occasions. At the end of the 12 days when all the untreated mice were dead, those given the Noni were still alive and doing well! At the end of 24 days, the Noni treated mice were all still going strong, this was a 100% extension of life! Actually, 40% which is 9 out of the 22 mice given the Noni, survived for more than 50 days. This is a life span more than 4 times greater than the longest living mouse not receiving the Noni. This an incredible achievement! Now remember, these were not just any mice, these mice were specifically bred to succumb to this form of cancer. In this regard, they were "genetically doomed" to be cancer victims. Yet in spite of this, a simple Noni extract gave these mice as much as 4 times the life span of their untreated relatives.
HOW NONI DID IT
I know you are as excited about what you just read as I am, but the best part may be how the Noni made this incredible achievement possible! Most people would just assume something in the Noni had killed the cancer cells. But like all good scientists, the researchers at the University of Hawaii School of Medicine wanted to know exactly how Noni had accomplished its miracle. What they found was quite surprising, and very important. They discovered that there was nothing in their Noni extract that killed the cancer cells. What they discovered was that there was a polysaccharide compound (6-D-glucopyranose pentaacetate) found in the Noni that INCREASED THE ABILITY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM TO PRODUCE CHEMICALS THAT ENHANCED THE KILLING POWER OF THE WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
Do you realize the great significance of that discovery? You see white blood cells have to kill many things besides cancer cells. They have to defend us against virus, bacteria, yeast, ameba, parasites and all types of invaders. Since this Noni polysaccharide worked by increasing the overall killing power of the white blood cells, this means it will most likely enhance that same killing power against any invader. It indicates Noni is very likely an overall immune enhancing substance that may provide that little extra which gives you the winning edge when some invading organism attacks your body.
MORE CANCER FIGHTING POWER IS FOUND
Japanese scientists were looking for a substance to fight cancer. They searched through over 500 different extracts from tropical plants looking for something which would inhibit the growth of RAS cancer cells. These are a particular type of fast growing and very malignant cancer cells that are hard to stop. Reporting in the journal Cancer Letters, the scientists stated that the Noni extract was by far the most effective at inhibiting and normalizing RAS transformed cancer cells. RAS is a normal part of the cell structure in every cell. It is a small protein which is part of the RNA of the cell and encodes for the reproduction of the cell. Only when it is activated by a carcinogenic protein within the cell does it trigger the cells to reproduce wildly. If you can turn off this uncontrolled RAS activity, you stop the cancers growth.8, 9. What the Japanese scientists found was that one of the phytochemicals in the Noni extract does exactly that! They found that it was the phytochemical in the Noni extract which goes by the fancy name of Damnacanthal that does this. When they added the Noni extract to RAS activated cancer cells they observed them daily for five days. What they saw was incredible!
They reported that slowly, day by day the cells began to change their morphology (cell structure) back to normal. It is only on the basis of this kind of hard science that doctors can rely upon the ability of a plant extract to produce the return to good health now being seen clinically by people who have been struggling with cancer. No one knows if Noni will produce a return to good health for any specific person, but the research shows there is a scientific basis for believing that it is possible. The above represent only a sample of the research completed on the Morinda citrifolia plant. The results are conclusive in each case in showing the validity of the traditional use of the Noni.
REFERENCES CITED IN THE TEXT
1. Limehouse,DVM, John B., Letter publicly circulated, dated February 6, 1997
No commercial company makes any medical claims and is not associated with the contents of this document in any way. This document is a compilation of information gathered from the listed and other sources and is provided here for your education only. It is in no way meant to be taken as medical advice or be used as a substitution for any medical treatment. Consult your physician with any questions.